Perpetual Uke, a rheumatology consultant at Birmingham City Hospital, began to feel unwell in late March.
She was later admitted to a critical care unit, placed on a ventilator and put in an induced coma to help her recover.
Her babies were delivered by caesarean section at 26 weeks on 10 April.
Sochika Palmer weighed just 770g (27oz) while her brother, Osinachi Pascal, weighed 850g (30oz).
Dr Uke remained in her coma for another 16 days.
“It was really terrifying… every passing day I was hoping my wife was not among those who are dead,” Dr Uke’s husband Matthew said.
“We are a team, the idea she might not be there was really difficult to accept.”
When Dr Uke regained consciousness, it was the result the family had prayed for, but she said she was suffering “ICU delirium” and was “so confused”.
The mother-of-four said waking up two weeks after the delivery “was unbelievable” and although hospital staff said the twins were hers, she “didn’t believe” it.
“When they showed me the pictures, they were so tiny, they didn’t look like human beings, I couldn’t believe they were mine,” she said.
The twins were discharged after spending 116 days in hospital and are “getting better as the days go by,” Dr Uke said.
“I had never wanted them to go through this difficult path at the start of their lives. They couldn’t see their mum for two weeks, which obviously made me very sad but, importantly, things had progressed well.”